Контрольная работа по английскому языку. Контрольные. - ТИХООКЕАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ Кафедра иностранных языков
Контрольные работы по английскому языку.
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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования ТИХООКЕАНСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ
Кафедра иностранных языков
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
указания к выполнению контрольной работы № 1
Хабаровск ТОГУ - ЦДОТ
Чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы курса английского языка:
1. Грамматические функции и значения слов that, one, it
2. Пассивный залог (The Passive Voice) видовременных форм Indefinite, Continuous, Perfect.
3. Функции глаголов to be, to have, to do.
4. Простые неличные формы глагола. Инфинитив в функции
а) подлежащего, б) составной части сказуемого, в) определения, г) обстоятельства цели,
5. Бессоюзное подчинение в определительных и дополнительных придаточных предложениях. Используйте образцы выполнения упражнений.
ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 1 (К УПР. I)
Present Perfect Passive
The main question has already been discussed. Главный вопрос уже обсудили.
Present Indefinite Passive
His scientific work is much spoken about. О его научной работе МНОГО говорят
ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 2 (К УПР. II)

1. It is necessary to use the latest means of control in industry. Необходимо использовать в промышленности новейшие средства контроля.
2. One should agree that that experiment was of great importance for our research. Следует согласиться, что тот эксперимент имел большое значение для нашего исследования.
3. It is hydrogen that will be the main source of energy in the car of the future. Именно водород будет основным источником энергии в автомобиле будущего.

ОБРАЗЕЦ ВЫПОЛНЕНИЯ 3 (К УПР. IV)
1. What is the name of the book you are reading? Как называется книга, которую ты читаешь?
2. The region we must explore possesses great natural wealth. Район, который мы должны исследовать, обладает огромными природными ресурсами

Номер варианта контрольной работы определяется по последней цифре номера зачетной книжки согласно таблице:
Последняя цифра номера зачетной книжки 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
Вариант контрольной работы 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
ВАРИАНТ 1

I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский ЯЗЫК.
1. When much material had been looked through and some problems had been solved, the article was published.
2. Electric cars will be widely used in future.
3. Today plastics are being applied for car bodies (car body - корпус автомобиля).
4. This lecturer is listened to with great interest.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is proved that light needs time to travel any distance. ;
2. One must take part in scientific work.
3. Specialists consider that in future city transport will reject gasoline.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. You have to come to the language laboratory of the Institute to work at our pronunciation.
2. This material does not possess elastic properties.
3. Scientists had to create new materials for industry.
4. The exam was to start in the morning.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. We know electricity produces heat.
2. The new materials the scientists developed were used in space technology.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. It is necessary for an engineer to know a foreign language.
2. The Russian scientists were the first to construct and launch the space rocket.
3. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.
4. To increase the productivity of labour one must use the methods we have just described.
VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й и 2-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. leap - прыжок
2. cushion - подушка
3. collaboration - сотрудничество
4. to recoup - компенсировать
5. magnetic suspension train - поезд магнитной подвеске
TOMORROW TRANSPORT
1. It has been a long time since train velocities first surpassed the 100 km per hour limit and they are now approaching 200 km per hour and even higher velocities in some countries. Is it possible to increase the speed with the help of the traditional wheel at the present stage in the development of transport facilities? Scientists and engineers in various countries have come to the conclusion that a new leap1 in velocity is possible only if the wheel is replaced with an air or magnetic cushion.
2. Scientific research centers are carrying out an extensive programme on developing high-speed ground transport. The advantages of high-speed ground transport to be used in future are obvious. At present air and road transport bums three-fourth of all produced fuels, and the combustion process, naturally, affects the earth's ecology.
3. The future trains must be ecologically clean and noiseless. It has been estimated that the cost of high-speed ground transport will be recouped4 three times faster than that of the railways.
4. The high-speed ground transport will connect cities and industrial centers to airports. Magnetic suspension train5 principle has found its way into technology. No doubt that tomorrow transport we are to use in cities, industrial centers, airports will be electric.
VII. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What kind of transport will connect industrial cities to airports?
1. electric trains
2. high-speed ground transport
3. magnetic suspension trains
ВАРИАНТ 2
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. When much had been done in the study of ecology by our institute it became an important scientific centre.
2. Buses were introduced first in Paris in 1820.
3. Mathematics is loved by many, disliked by a few, admired and respected by all.
4. Rome was not built in a day.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is necessary to find new sources of cheap energy.
2. It was Einstein who came to the conclusion that the electromagnetic field is influenced by the gravitational field.
3. This metro station was opened last year, and that one will be put into operation in two years.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. Man had to learn to obtain electric power directly from the Sun.
2. At present most of the industrial enterprises have their own electric power stations.
3. We do not use solar cells in industry as they are too expensive.
4. Specialists are to study the problem of protecting the environment.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. Every task a computer does must be programmed.
2. Some new facts he mentioned were interesting and important.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива.
1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.
2. Russia was the first country to send man into space.
3. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.
4. People all over the world are uniting to fight against the threat of terrorism.
VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. magneto-heat engine — магнитно-тепловой двигатель
2. inexhaustible — неисчерпаемый, неистощимый
SUN-DRIVEN ENGINE
1. It is common knowledge that certain metals and their alloys are attracted by a magnet. After heating, this property vanishes; it is restored after cooling down. A new magneto-heat engine1 works on this principle. This invention relates to devices which transform thermal power, for instance, the power of the sun rays, into a mechanical power of rotation.
2. We know solar power is inexhaustible and its use does not harm the environment. That's why such importance is attached to the devices which make it possible to apply the idea of direct use of solar power, transforming it into mechanical forms of power. The development of an engine directly driven by a heat source such as solar power makes it possible to simplify and make power generation considerably cheaper, in comparison to the existing thermal engines we use today.
3. The rotor of the new engine is made of an alloy that loses its magnetic properties already at 100°C. If the rotor is heated on one side, the cold side of the rotor will turn toward the magnet. Since heating continues, the rotor goes on rotating, too. Thus solar power can be used as a source of heat in this case. The magneto-heat engine can drive pumps in waterless districts, it can also be widely used for watering greenery in cities and settlements.
4. By using thermo-magnetic alloys it is possible to develop a lot of automatic devices, for example, solar clocks, thermometers, etc. Mention should be made that these devices can withstand extreme temperatures. To organize the production of the necessary alloys is simple as there is no need for rare materials or complex technology.
VII. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
Why are thermomagnetic alloys used in the production of automatic devices?
1. ... they resist to acids.
2. ... they resist to heat.
3. ... they resist to pressure.
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The radar has been used for the automatic control of transport.
2. Today plastics are being widely used instead of metals.
3. The construction of the bridge has been completed this month.
4. The documents were carefully looked through by the company manager.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is the number of electrons within the atom that determines the properties of a substance.
2. The area of Khabarovsk Terrtory is two times larger than that of Japan.
3. In London one must get used to the left-side traffic.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов to be, to have, to do.
1. Some substances do not conduct heat.
2. Our plant is to increase the output of consumer goods.
3. Soon our industry will have new and cheap sources of energy.
4. These computers will have to perform millions of operations per second.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. The dormitory our students live in is situated not far from the university.
2.1 think he has made a mistake in his calculations.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.
1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.
2. The work of an architect is to design buildings which are beautiful to look at as well as useful.
3. The experiment to be carried out is of great importance for our research.
4. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.
VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys - трансмиссионные валы, зубчатые колеса, ремни и блоки
2. time and labour saving appliances -электроприборы, экономящие время и
деньги
3. induction motors - индукционные моторы
4. per capita - на душу населения
5. by-products - побочные продукты
ELECTRICITY
1. It is impossible to imagine our civilization without electricity. With the appearance of the electrical motor, power cables replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys1 in the 19-th century workshops. At home various time and labour saving appliances have become a part of our everyday lives. Other devices are based on specific properties of electricity: electrostatics in the case of photocopying machine and electromagnetism in the case of radar and television. The first industrial application was in the silver workshops in Paris. The generator (a new compact source of electricity) was also developed there. The generator replaced the batteries and other devices that had been used before.
2. Electric lighting came into wide use at the end of the 19-th century with the development of the electric lamp by Thomas Edison. The two scientists Lodygyn and Yablochkov were the first in Russia to work in the field of electrical engineering. Later the transformer was invented, the first electric lines and networks were set up, dynamos and induction motors were designed. Since the beginning of the 20-th century the successful development of electricity has begun throughout the industrial world.
3. Today consumption of electricity per capita4 is an indicator of the economic development of a nation. Electricity has replaced other sources of energy as it has been realized that it offers improved service at reduced cost. No other source of energy has been so widely used as electricity. One of the greatest advantages of electricity is that it is ecologically clean, easily-regulated and generates no by-products5. Applications of electricity now cover all fields of human activity from house washing machines to the latest laser devices. Truly electricity provides mankind with the energy of the future.
VII. Прочитайте вопрос к тексту. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What is one of the greatest advantages of electricity?
1. It generates by products.
2. It is ecologically clean and cheap.
3. It replaced transmission shafts, gear wheels, belts and pulleys.
ВАРИАНТ 4
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский ЯЗЫК.
1. The modem automatic equipment is being installed in our shop.
2. Radioactive isotopes have been made in nuclear reactor.
3. The construction of the house will be completed in a month.
4. The engineer was asked about the new technology used at the plant.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. The successes in chemistry made it possible to obtain a lot of new materials.
2. One must apply the material that can be machined easily.
3. It is the energy of falling water that is used to drive turbines.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. The operators dealing with radioisotopes must have protective suits.
2. The engineers of different specialities are often to study difficult problems together.
3. Mice do not catch cats, cats catch mice.
4. People have made numerous attempts to construct perpetum mobile.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.1 think the drawing will be ready by tomorrow.
2. The characteristics we are interested in are shape and size.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.
1. То design new buildings is the work of an architect.
2 To measure volume we must know the body dimensions.
3. The Romans were the first to build paved roads.
VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 4-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. exhaust - истощаться
2. ocean tide - океанский прилив
3. current - поток, течение
4. promising - перспективный, обещающий
5. windmill - ветряная мельница
NON-TRADITIONAL RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
1. Now we are using traditional power sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, wind and water power. The consumption is more than 50 billion barrels per year. Scientists understand that if mankind consumes natural resources with the same rate, these resources will exhaust1 in a few hundred years. The amount of natural resources on Earth is not unlimited. That is why it is so important to use
2 3
such renewable sources of energy as the sun, wind, ocean tides , currents , geothermal energy and others. Research is being carried out in these fields.
2. One of the most promising4 researches is the development of power stations with direct transformation of solar energy |into electricity on the basis of photo effect. It was Russia that was the first in the world to develop and test a photoelectric battery of 32,000 volts and effective area of only 0.5 sq.m., which made it possible to concentrate solar radiation. This idea is now being intensively developed in many countries.
3. However, the efficiency of a solar power station is considerably reduced because of the limited time of its work during the year. But it is possible to improve the efficiency of solar power stations by developing different combinations of solar power stations and traditional ones - thermal, atomic and hydraulic. Today some engineers are working at the problem of developing electric power stations with the use of a thermal-chemical cycle.
4. In Kamchatka there are geothermal power stations operating on hot water- steam from the depths of about a kilometer. In some projects water will be heated by the warmth of volcanoes at a depth of four - five km Several big companies show great interest towards windmill5. The installation of the smallest one, ranging from 100 to 2,000 kilowatts would provide sufficient electricity to power several homes; the largest could provide electricity to a small village. It is important that all these advances in developing new sources of energy and improving the old ones help to solve the energy problem as a whole and they do not have negative effects on the environment.
VII. Прочитайте вопрос к тексту. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос: Why do some big companies show great interest towards windmills?
1. Windmills do not have negative effects on the environment.
2. Windmills improve the efficiency of solar power stations.
3. Windmills would provide sufficient electricity to power homes and villages.
I. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них видо-временную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого (см. образец). Переведите предложения на русский ЯЗЫК.
1. In modem aviation greater and greater speeds are being attained.
2. Young specialist was introduced to the professor.
3. The material properties are affected by solar radiation.
4. Scientific and engineering progress opens up wide prospects before mankind.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is necessary to obtain sufficient data in order to make an accurate map of an area.
2. He that cannot obey cannot command.
3. One should be careful when working with chemical substances.
III. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения глаголов to be, to have, to do.
1. The weight of the cargo does not have to be large.
2. We shall have to take this possibility into account.
3. We have changed the design of this machine.
4. The speed of electrons is almost the same as that of light.
IV. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1. We know radio and radar systems play a very important role at any airport.
2. The manager is known by the company he keeps.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложении.
1. A computer producing company announced a computer small enough to set on a desktop and powerful enough to support high level language programming.
2. To meet all the demands of the customer requires time.
3. Houses are built to live in, and not only to look at.

VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1-й, 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. as to suggest magic - можно принять за чудо
2. no doubt - без сомнения
3. in time - со временем
LASER
1. Laser, one of the most sophisticated inventions of man, produces an intensive light beam of a very pure single colour. One of the mankind's oldest dreams of technology to provide a light beam intensive enough to vaporize the hardest and most heat-resistant materials came true. Laser can indeed make lead run like water, or, when focused, it can vaporize any substance on earth. Laser is becoming one of the main technological tools nowadays.
2. The applications of laser in industry and science are so many and so varied as to suggest magic1. Scientists in many countries are working at a very interesting problem: combining the two big technological discoveries of the second half of the 20-th century: laser and thermonuclear reaction, to produce a practically inexhaustible source of energy. There also exists an idea to use laser for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction.
3. The laser's most important potential may be its use in communication. The intensity of a laser can be rapidly changed to encode very complex signals. One laser beam, vibrating a billion times faster than ordinary radio waves, could transmit the entire text of the Encyclopedia Britannica in just a fraction of a second.
4. Besides, there are projects to use lasers for long distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations, to the surface of the Moon or to planets in the solar system. Projects have also been suggested to place lasers aboard Earth satellites nearer to the Sun in order to transform the solar radiation into laser beams. There is no doubt2 that in time3 these projects will be realized and the laser beam will begin operating in outer space as well.
VII. Прочитайте вопрос к тексту. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
What is the aim of placing lasers aboard Earth satellites nearer to the Sun?
1. To use laser for solving the problem of controlled thermonuclear reaction.
2. To transform the solar radiation into laser beams.
3. For transmission of energy to space stations, to the surface of the Moon or to planets in the solar system.
Контрольные работы по английскому языку.